Guide Biosensors - Emerging Materials and Applications

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Read more about how they are being used and the road ahead.

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Biosensors are sensing platforms that incorporate a biological component in the detection of an analyte. Exhibit 1 segments the biosensor platform based on the key biological agents that are used.

Biosensors: An Introduction

These elements will react with the target or the sample under study if there is an affinity. Based on this coupling, the transducer element transforms the signal into a readable output. Exhibit 2 provides an overview of the detection process, delineating the different components and processes involved in the sensing process. Exhibit 3 provides a broad-based classification of the biosensor market by the technique used for detection. Together, these exhibits illustrate the general working of a biosensor platform.

Biosensors

However, due to the ubiquitous nature of biosensors, this mechanism is barely recognized by end users. The use of biosensors has permeated the entire health care spectrum. Laboratory-based tests to diagnose infectious diseases employ biosensors, as do consumer health care products such as diabetes monitors and pregnancy test kits. For comparison, gas sensors the next-largest segment contribute merely a 5.

Biosensors cater to a wide variety of applications, ranging from personal health to clinical diagnostics, automotive, homeland security, and food and dairy testing. This article highlights some of the emerging and high-growth applications of biosensors and profiles innovators in the space. Biosensor Applications Sweden AB was among the earliest companies to develop a multisensing platform for the purpose of simultaneous drug and explosive detection.

This platform, called BIOSENS, combines cutting-edge microfluidics, biochemistry and microelectronics technologies with advanced data processing to enable real-time detection and analysis. A multidisciplinary group of researchers at Amity University New Delhi, India has developed a reusable biosensing platform for the accurate, sensitive and early diagnosis of infectious diseases such as dengue, and other mosquito-borne diseases that wreak havoc in tropical climes.

The researchers added a single-stranded DNA of the dengue virus on a nanoparticle-coated, fluorine-doped electrode. If the blood sample is infected with dengue, the biosensors will selectively and irreversibly bind to the complementary strand. Biosensors incorporated with photonic crystal PC structures hold promise to address many of the aforementioned challenges facing the development of new POC diagnostics. Currently, PC-based biosensors have been employed for detecting a variety of biotargets, such as cells, pathogens, proteins, antibodies, and nucleic acids, with high efficiency and selectivity.

In this review, we provide a broad overview of PCs by explaining their structures, fabrication techniques, and sensing principles. Furthermore, we discuss recent applications of PC-based biosensors incorporated with emerging technologies, including telemedicine, flexible and wearable sensing, smart materials and metamaterials.

Finally, we discuss current challenges associated with existing biosensors, and provide an outlook for PC-based biosensors and their promise at the POC. The article was received on 12 Mar and first published on 14 Nov If you are not the author of this article and you wish to reproduce material from it in a third party non-RSC publication you must formally request permission using Copyright Clearance Center. Go to our Instructions for using Copyright Clearance Center page for details. Authors contributing to RSC publications journal articles, books or book chapters do not need to formally request permission to reproduce material contained in this article provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.

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