Manual Heart and Mind: The Varieties of Moral Experience (Routledge Classics)

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Let sea-discoverers to new worlds have gone, Let maps to others, worlds on worlds have shown, Let us possess one world, each hath one, and is one. The poetry inhabits an exhilaratingly unpredictable world in which wariness and quick wits are at a premium. Exploiting and being exploited are taken as conditions of nature, which we share on equal terms with the beasts of the jungle and the ocean. He hunts not fish, but as an officer, Stays in his court, as his own net, and there All suitors of all sorts themselves enthral; So on his back lies this whale wantoning, And in his gulf-like throat, sucks everything That passeth near.

Donne characterizes our natural life in the world as a condition of flux and momentariness, which we may nonetheless turn to our advantage. But we by a love, so much refined, That our selves know not what it is, Inter-assured of the mind, Care less, eyes, lips, and hands to miss. Donne finds some striking images to define this state in which two people remain wholly one while they are separated.

A supple argument unfolds with lyric grace. The poems editors group together were not necessarily produced thus. Donne did not write for publication. Fewer than eight complete poems were published during his lifetime, and only two of these publications were authorized by him. The poems he released were passed around in manuscript and transcribed by his admirers singly or in gatherings.

Some of these copies have survived. When the first printed edition of his poems was published in , two years after his death, the haphazard arrangement of the poems gave no clue to the order of their composition. Many modern editions of the poetry impose categorical divisions that are unlikely to correspond to the order of writing, separating the love poetry from the satires and the religious poetry, the verse letters from the epithalamiums and funeral poems.

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Donne may well have composed them at intervals and in unlike situations over some 20 years of his poetic career. Some of them may even have overlapped with his best-known religious poems, which are likely to have been written about , before he took holy orders. Poems so vividly individuated invite attention to the circumstances that shaped them. Donne was born in London between January 24 and June 19, into the precarious world of English recusant Catholicism, whose perils his family well knew.

His father, John Donne, was a Welsh ironmonger. Yet at some time in his young manhood Donne himself converted to Anglicanism and never went back on that reasoned decision.

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Though no records of his attendance at Cambridge are extant, he may have gone on to study there as well and may have accompanied his uncle Jasper Heywood on a trip to Paris and Antwerp during this time. After sailing as a gentleman adventurer with the English expeditions to Cadiz and the Azores in and , he entered the service of Sir Thomas Egerton, the lord keeper of England. More came up to London for an autumn sitting of Parliament in , bringing with him his daughter Ann, then Donne and his helpful friends were briefly imprisoned, and More set out to get the marriage annulled, demanding that Egerton dismiss his amorous secretary.

The marriage was eventually upheld; indeed, More became reconciled to it and to his son-in-law, but Donne lost his job in and did not find regular employment again until he took holy orders more than 12 years later. Throughout his middle years he and his wife brought up an ever-increasing family with the aid of relatives, friends, and patrons, and on the uncertain income he could bring in by polemical hackwork and the like.

But in the present state of the world, and ourselves, the task becomes heroic and calls for a singular resolution. Such unsettling idiosyncrasy is too persistent to be merely wanton or sensational. It subverts our conventional proprieties in the interest of a radical order of truth. Yet grace, if thou repent, thou canst not lack; But who shall give thee that grace to begin? Oh make thyself with holy mourning black, And red with blushing, as thou art with sin.

Mark in my heart, O soul, where thou dost dwell, The picture of Christ crucified, and tell Whether that countenance can thee affright. Spit in my face ye Jews, and pierce my side, Buffet, and scoff, scourge, and crucify me, For I have sinned, and sinned, and only he, Who could do no iniquity, hath died. Wit becomes the means by which the poet discovers the working of Providence in the casual traffic of the world. A serious illness that Donne suffered in produced a still more startling poetic effect.

Is the Pacific Sea my home? Or are The eastern riches? Is Jerusalem? Anyan, and Magellan, and Gibraltar, All straits, and none but straits, are ways to them. By this self-questioning he brings himself to understand that his suffering may itself be a blessing, since he shares the condition of a world in which our ultimate bliss must be won through well-endured hardship. I have a sin of fear, that when I have spun My last thread, I shall perish on the shore; But swear by thy self, that at my death thy son Shall shine as he shines now, and heretofore; And, having done that, thou hast done, I fear no more.

For this poet such coincidences of words and ideas are not mere accidents to be juggled with in jest. They mark precisely the working of Providence within the order of nature. The transformation of Jack Donne the rake into the Reverend Dr. Donne, dean of St. One reason for the appeal of Donne in modern times is that he confronts us with the complexity of our own natures. Once committed to the Church, Donne devoted himself to it totally, and his life thereafter becomes a record of incumbencies held and sermons preached.

He was elected dean of St. Over a literary career of some 40 years Donne moved from skeptical naturalism to a conviction of the shaping presence of the divine spirit in the natural creation. Yet his mature understanding did not contradict his earlier vision. He simply came to anticipate a Providential disposition in the restless whirl of the world. The amorous adventurer nurtured the dean of St.

Freedom is where the artist begins: there are no rules, and the principles and habits are up to you. With the exception of the Anniversaries, almost none of Donne's poems were published during his lifetime; only one poem survives in his holograph. The texts for all others derive from more than two hundred pieces of manuscript evidence, the majority of which are catalogued by Peter Beal in Index to English Literary Manuscripts, volume one London: R.

Heart and Mind: The Varieties of Moral Experience

Bowker, A forthcoming project under the general editorship of Gary Stringer, The Variorum Edition of the Poetry of John Donne, aims to account for the complete textual and critical history of Donne's poems. Prose Home Harriet Blog. Visit Home Events Exhibitions Library. Newsletter Subscribe Give. Poetry Foundation. Back to Previous. John Donne. Poems by John Donne.

Related Content. Articles Freedom in Poetry Herbert Sucks. Donne is a Pimp. More About this Poet. Region: England.

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Poems by This Poet Related Bibliography. Air and Angels. An Anatomy of the World. The Anniversary. The Apparition. The Bait. Break of Day. A Burnt Ship. Considering the latter, the manifestation of the mind-stream is described as happening in every person all the time, even in a scientist who analyses various phenomena in the world, including analyzing and hypothesizing about the organ brain.

Philosophers David L. Robb and John F. Heil introduce mental causation in terms of the mind—body problem of interaction:. Mind—body interaction has a central place in our pretheoretic conception of agency. Indeed, mental causation often figures explicitly in formulations of the mind—body problem. Some philosophers insist that the very notion of psychological explanation turns on the intelligibility of mental causation.

If your mind and its states, such as your beliefs and desires, were causally isolated from your bodily behavior, then what goes on in your mind could not explain what you do. If psychological explanation goes, so do the closely related notions of agency and moral responsibility. Clearly, a good deal rides on a satisfactory solution to the problem of mental causation [and] there is more than one way in which puzzles about the mind's "causal relevance" to behavior and to the physical world more generally can arise.

According to Descartes, minds and bodies are distinct kinds of "substance". Bodies, he held, are spatially extended substances, incapable of feeling or thought; minds, in contrast, are unextended, thinking, feeling substances. If minds and bodies are radically different kinds of substance, however, it is not easy to see how they "could" causally interact. Princess Elizabeth of Bohemia puts it forcefully to him in a letter:. For the determination of movement seems always to come about from the moving body's being propelled—to depend on the kind of impulse it gets from what sets it in motion, or again, on the nature and shape of this latter thing's surface.

Now the first two conditions involve contact, and the third involves that the impelling thing has extension; but you utterly exclude extension from your notion of soul, and contact seems to me incompatible with a thing's being immaterial Elizabeth is expressing the prevailing mechanistic view as to how causation of bodies works. Causal relations countenanced by contemporary physics can take several forms, not all of which are of the push—pull variety.

Contemporary neurophilosopher Georg Northoff suggests that mental causation is compatible with classical formal and final causality. Biologist, theoretical neuroscientist and philosopher, Walter J. Freeman , suggests that explaining mind—body interaction in terms of "circular causation" is more relevant than linear causation. In neuroscience , much has been learned about correlations between brain activity and subjective, conscious experiences. Many suggest that neuroscience will ultimately explain consciousness: " Cognitive science today gets increasingly interested in the embodiment of human perception, thinking, and action.

Abstract information processing models are no longer accepted as satisfactory accounts of the human mind. Interest has shifted to interactions between the material human body and its surroundings and to the way in which such interactions shape the mind. Proponents of this approach have expressed the hope that it will ultimately dissolve the Cartesian divide between the immaterial mind and the material existence of human beings Damasio, ; Gallagher, A topic that seems particularly promising for providing a bridge across the mind—body cleavage is the study of bodily actions, which are neither reflexive reactions to external stimuli nor indications of mental states, which have only arbitrary relationships to the motor features of the action e.

The shape, timing, and effects of such actions are inseparable from their meaning. One might say that they are loaded with mental content, which cannot be appreciated other than by studying their material features. Imitation, communicative gesturing, and tool use are examples of these kinds of actions. The neural correlates of consciousness "are the smallest set of brain mechanisms and events sufficient for some specific conscious feeling, as elemental as the color red or as complex as the sensual, mysterious, and primeval sensation evoked when looking at [a] jungle scene A science of consciousness must explain the exact relationship between subjective conscious mental states and brain states formed by electrochemical interactions in the body, the so-called hard problem of consciousness.

Neurophilosophy is the interdisciplinary study of neuroscience and philosophy of mind. In this pursuit, neurophilosophers, such as Patricia Churchland , [25] [26] Paul Churchland [27] and Daniel Dennett , [28] [29] have focused primarily on the body rather than the mind. In this context, neuronal correlates may be viewed as causing consciousness, where consciousness can be thought of as an undefined property that depends upon this complex , adaptive, and highly interconnected biological system.

The massive parallelism of neural networks allows redundant populations of neurons to mediate the same or similar percepts. Nonetheless, it is assumed that every subjective state will have associated neural correlates, which can be manipulated to artificially inhibit or induce the subject's experience of that conscious state. The growing ability of neuroscientists to manipulate neurons using methods from molecular biology in combination with optical tools [31] was achieved by the development of behavioral and organic models that are amenable to large-scale genomic analysis and manipulation.

Non-human analysis such as this, in combination with imaging of the human brain, have contributed to a robust and increasingly predictive theoretical framework. There are two common but distinct dimensions of the term consciousness , [33] one involving arousal and states of consciousness and the other involving content of consciousness and conscious states.

To be conscious of something, the brain must be in a relatively high state of arousal sometimes called vigilance , whether awake or in REM sleep. Brain arousal level fluctuates in a circadian rhythm but these natural cycles may be influenced by lack of sleep, alcohol and other drugs, physical exertion, etc. Arousal can be measured behaviorally by the signal amplitude required to trigger a given reaction for example, the sound level that causes a subject to turn and look toward the source. High arousal states involve conscious states that feature specific perceptual content, planning and recollection or even fantasy.

Clinicians use scoring systems such as the Glasgow Coma Scale to assess the level of arousal in patients with impaired states of consciousness such as the comatose state , the persistent vegetative state , and the minimally conscious state. Here, "state" refers to different amounts of externalized, physical consciousness: ranging from a total absence in coma, persistent vegetative state and general anesthesia , to a fluctuating, minimally conscious state, such as sleep walking and epileptic seizure.

Many nuclei with distinct chemical signatures in the thalamus , midbrain and pons must function for a subject to be in a sufficient state of brain arousal to experience anything at all. These nuclei therefore belong to the enabling factors for consciousness.

Conversely it is likely that the specific content of any particular conscious sensation is mediated by particular neurons in the cortex and their associated satellite structures, including the amygdala , thalamus , claustrum and the basal ganglia. The Buddha — B. E , founder of Buddhism , described the mind and the body as depending on each other in a way that two sheaves of reeds were to stand leaning against one another [35] and taught that the world consists of mind and matter which work together, interdependently.

Buddhist teachings describe the mind as manifesting from moment to moment, one thought moment at a time as a fast flowing stream. The arising and passing of these aggregates in the present moment is described as being influenced by five causal laws: biological laws, psychological laws, physical laws, volitional laws, and universal laws. Plato — B. According to Plato, objects in our everyday world "participate in" these Forms, which confer identity and meaning to material objects.

For example, a circle drawn in the sand would be a circle only because it participates in the concept of an ideal circle that exists somewhere in the world of Forms. He argued that, as the body is from the material world, the soul is from the world of Forms and is thus immortal. He believed the soul was temporarily united with the body and would only be separated at death, when it would return to the world of Forms.

Since the soul does not exist in time and space, as the body does, it can access universal truths. For Plato, ideas or Forms are the true reality, and are experienced by the soul. The body is for Plato empty in that it can not access the abstract reality of the world; it can only experience shadows. This is determined by Plato's essentially rationalistic epistemology. For Aristotle — BC mind is a faculty of the soul.

It is not necessary to ask whether soul and body are one, just as it is not necessary to ask whether the wax and its shape are one, nor generally whether the matter of each thing and that of which it is the matter are one. For even if one and being are spoken of in several ways, what is properly so spoken of is the actuality.

In the end, Aristotle saw the relation between soul and body as uncomplicated, in the same way that it is uncomplicated that a cubical shape is a property of a toy building block. The soul is a property exhibited by the body, one among many. Moreover, Aristotle proposed that when the body perishes, so does the soul, just as the shape of a building block disappears with destruction of the block.

In religious philosophy of Eastern monotheism, dualism denotes a binary opposition of an idea that contains two essential parts. The first formal concept of a "mind-body" split may be found in the " divinity - secularity " dualism of the ancient Persian religion of Zoroastrianism around the mid-fifth century BC. Gnosticism is a modern name for a variety of ancient dualistic ideas inspired by Judaism popular in the first and second century AD.

Like Aristotle , St. Thomas Aquinas — believed that the mind and the body are one, like the seal and the wax are one, and it is therefore pointless to ask whether they are one. However, referring to "mind" as "the soul" he asserted that the soul persists after the death of the body in spite of their unity, calling the soul "this particular thing". Reading: Texts to be used in translation will be taken on the first place from R.

This course will focus on what is usually termed Hellenistic philosophy, the period after the death of Aristotle in which numerous philosophical schools flourished.

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In particular we will study Epicureanism, Stoicism, and Skepticism. We will consider their views on the nature of the universe, human happiness, knowledge, and virtue. Weill will also consider briefly the so-called Middle Platonists, who flourished along with the above schools. All of these philosophies will be examined in the light of their opposition to and appropriation of the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle. Readings: Hellenistic Philosophy , edited and translated by B. Inwood and Lloyd P.

Gerson Hackett, Texts for the Middle Platonists will be provided in pdfs. Lloyd Gerson Monday and Wednesday We will consider the so-called Socratic paradoxes, e. We will consider also the psychology of action as this pertains to the principle of morality.

Finally, we will examine how Plato sets his moral philosophy within a metaphysical context. Our in-class discussions will focus on topics decided collectively by you, on the basis of whatever is of most interest to everyone. Augustine is recognized by both his admirers and his detractors as one of the most astute analysts of human nature; for better or worse, his views about what is good, sinful, and evil have deeply influenced the moral thinking of Western civilization for centuries.

The goal throughout will be mastery of some of the main ideas and arguments as presented in these texts. Topics to be discussed include the existence and nature of God, the mind-body problem, the nature of substance, necessitarianism, various metaphysical principles, and other topics as well. Topics to be discussed include the rejection of innate knowledge, scepticism, causation, the existence of God, the nature of substance, idealism, personal identity, and other topics as well. Charlie Cooper-Simpson Tuesday and Thursday With the CPR , Kant set out to determine whether and how metaphysics is possible.

In doing so, he developed a revolutionary account of self-consciousness and of the possibility of empirical knowledge that was an immediate and lasting source of philosophical controversy. Readings: Kant, Critique of Pure Reason , trans. Paul Guyer and Allen Wood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Jordan Thomson Tuesday and Thursday This course is an advanced introduction to the thought of Karl Marx. We may also read some contemporary Marxists as well as critics of Marxism.

A few additional readings from Husserl, Merleau-Ponty and Beauvoir will be made available through the course website. Of particular interest will be the relationship between phenomenology as Heidegger imagines it and historical approaches to metaphysics.

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Joan Stambaugh, revised ed. Charlie Cooper-Simpson Thursday This course will develop the idea of a critique of culture and investigate the relationship between philosophy and culture. Readings will be drawn primarily from thinkers associated with the Frankfurt School e. Adorno, Horkheimer, Benjamin. Dave Suarez Wednesday What makes a truth of mathematics true?

Is arithmetic reducible to logic? What enables words and thoughts to refer to things? In trying to answer these questions, Frege, Russell, and Wittgenstein gave birth to analytic philosophy, developing concepts and methods that have irrevocably shaped the way we think about logic and language, mathematics and the mind. Routledge, This course is an examination of naturalism, roughly the view that all of reality is ultimately or exclusively physical. David Barnett Tuesday and Thursday Can you know something even if you have no evidence that it is true? Is it rational to hold political or religious beliefs that you would have rejected had you been raised in a different family or culture?

In this introductory course in epistemology, we will examine these and other questions about what you really know and what you can rationally believe.

“Plato’s Psychology & Moral Theory” – Ancient Philosophy, Video 17

In addition to these sorts of questions, we will step back and consider the general question of what it is to know something, and what it is to believe something rationally. We will even consider skepticism, the philosophical view that you do not know anything at all.

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This course is an introduction to classical Islamic or Arabic philosophy falsafah , which developed when the works of the ancient Greek philosophers were translated into Arabic and became a part of the intellectual heritage of the Islamic world. Topics covered will include the existence and knowability of God; creation and causality; human nature and knowledge; and the constitution of the ideal political regime.

Reading: Classical Arabic Philosophy. Hackett Publishing, ; additional readings TBA. The Enlightenment defined the course of modern Jewish philosophy. It criticized traditional notions of revelation and it reconfigured the relation of the Jewish community to the nascent liberal state. In this course, we will examine radical figures of the Enlightenment, like Spinoza, moderate figures like Mendelssohn, and those who rejected this path altogether, in either favor of revolution, such as Marx, or Jewish nationalism, such as Herzl.

We will discuss the philosophical legacy of these thinkers in the twentieth century before and after the Holocaust. The goal is to examine critically the Enlightenment narrative to see what relevance it has for us today. Typical issues include: the mind-brain identity theory; intentionality and the mental; personal identity.