Crosby, A. Crowther, J. Cunningham, A. Dainton, B. Damerow, P. Day, J. Dear, J. Descartes, Descartes: Philosophical Letters , ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Dijksterhuis, F. Dreyer, E. Efron, N. Engels, F. Evans, J. Evans, R. Fara, P. Farrington, B.
Field, J. Findlen, P. Finlay, R. Folta, J. Forbes, R.
Science in History: Volume 2 The Scientific and Industrial Revolution
Frankenberger, Z. Freudenthal, G. Fritsche, J. Gascoigne, J. Gaukroger, S. Gellner, E. Goodman, D. Gould, S. Graham, A. Grant, E. Greenaway, F. Hacking, I. Hadden, R. Hahn, R. Hall, A. Harkness, D. Harnack, A.
Haubelt, J. Heath, T. Henry, J. Henshaw, Mr. Martyn and J. Allestry, pp. Hessen, B. London: Cass, , pp. With a new Foreword by Needham, J. Hicks, J. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Holorenshaw, H. Hook, Mr. Hunter, M. Ihde, A.
Inkster, I. Jacob, M. Osler ed. Jardine, N. Johnson, Ch. Nelson, Jones, J. Jones, S. Kaufmann DaCosta, T. Kaye, J. Kiernan, V. Kinsky, Fr. Knight, D. Koerner, L. Paris : Hermann, Krohn, W. Kuhn, T. Landes, D. Lindberg, D. Lindroth, S. Lloyd, G. Dunn ed,. Machamer, P. Mason, P. Mayer, H. Metzger, H.
Mirsky, J. Mitterauer, M. Mokyr, J. Musson, A. Needham, J. N, , pp. Werskey London: Allen and Unwin, Spengler Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, North, J. Ogilvie, S. Oresme, N. Osler, M. Oster, M. Pagel, W. Pedersen, O. Pickstone, J. Poda, N. Prague: Walther, Pollock, S.esaklasys.tk
Science In History, Volume 2
Porter, R. Pumfrey, S. Reinalter, H. Ritter, J. Rose, S. Rossi, P.
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Rudolph, H. Schaffer, S. Scribner, B. In particular industries involved in the production of cotton, linen, silk were dominated by families. Small and larger manufacturing enterprises including engineering were also family owned and operated in such diverse industries as brewing, cutlery, pottery alongside thousands of workshops producing specialised products and artefacts particularly around Birmingham and Manchester. The culture of the family was apt to be very protective and secretive towards their manufacturing techniques and they were generally reluctant to cooperate and form associations with other similar based manufactures and this again was in stark contrast with companies in Europe.
This secretive attitude was also evident in the way companies would avoid or be reluctant to register and patent their products for fear of plagiarism. Many businesses on the continent and the US took the opposite approach and many became very large with world wide brands and product differentiation which ultimately gave them a competitive edge over England towards the end of the 19th century.
In fact this reluctance and propensity for secrecy about their industrial processes eventually became counterproductive as continental countries began to develop and manage technology in a more systematic way compared with England. The relatively small size of the companies also had a negative impact on marketing and sales activities especially abroad.
The home market was very buoyant and effective sales and marketing were relatively easy and this contributed to the culture of complacency and indifference but the overseas sales were very different and soon declining sales highlighted weaknesses in the sale techniques adopted by England companies. Because companies were relatively small they were inevitably reluctant to invest in dedicated sales teams based overseas instead preferring to use agents and agencies who also worked on behalf of other companies so no real loyalty and commitment existed with these agents and often there were issues of conflict of interests.
As competition increased from continental countries and the USA the weaknesses inherent in the way sales and marketing of British products operated began very apparent. The USA and Germany developed networks of sales organisations dispensing with agencies and agents. Another factor that reflected weak management was the poor relationships that existed between workers and managers coupled with the opposition to unions and union membership that were strongly discouraged.
Commercial, business and management education was virtually non-existent during most of the 19th century and was even less developed than technical education. I will consider the development of business and management education in later chapters. One fascinating factor that reflects the basic hostility towards industry and technical education is explored by Wiener 1 and others namely the influence of class and social stratification. What is particularly interesting is the manner in which the first generation of successful industrialists behaved towards the education of their children.
They invested their fortunes in massive country estates and did all possible to be recognised, accepted and assimilated into the upper echelons of English society. This most certainly included sending their sons to Eton or other public schools and Oxbridge and upon graduating they entered the family business ill — prepared to be part of the business lacking the necessary experiences, knowledge, skills and the techniques associated with the industrial processes, technological and scientific concepts and management of the business.
Even more interesting is that many did not return to the business but went into the perceived more cultured and dignified environments of law, politics, religion and the other learned professions.
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These negative attitudes still exists today. One only has to see the current problems with recruiting people in these subjects into colleges and universities. These deeply held attitudes and prejudices most certainly demonstrate the destructive effect of class attitudes and negative perceptions that persist even to day in some quarters of society. Most company managers were reluctant to adapt and innovate and invested little in new plant and equipment. This created a culture of resistance to move with the times and overall industry failed to invest in new plant and equipment, develop new products and processes based on advancing scientific and technological ideas and reluctance to recruit scientifically and technologically qualified people.
This reluctance to embrace new industrial and managerial practices continued well into the 20th century. One classic case was the indifference indeed hostility towards the introduction of scientific management techniques. This approach was developed with great success in the USA but employers in this country resisted its introduction arguing strongly that workers were human beings and not machines and that there was no place for scientific routines or procedures in industrial and commercial businesses.
Just as advances in technology significantly influenced the Industrial Revolution the development of scientific ideas in turn influenced technology and made major contributions to the first and second industrial revolutions. Indeed until the advent of the scientific era, technological advances were almost exclusively based on craft and trade skills and experience, personified by the apprentice model where the skills were handed on very much on a personal and individualistic level.
The secrets of the craft or trade were jealously guarded and often shrouded in mystery. Chapter 3 will describe more fully the apprenticeship model before and after the Industrial Revolution. One of the more intriguing aspects in writing this history is the identification of a number of perplexing and paradoxical issues, none more so than the interaction between science and technology and the role and teaching of these disciplines in the emerging education systems.
This paradox has been highlighted by a number of influential writers e. Levine 2. The belief which sadly continues today is that science is seen as being a more superior body of knowledge than technology as well as the subsequent application of scientific knowledge and ideas. This perception of precedence comprised two directly related aspects, firstly that science always precedes technology because the application could only happen after the scientific discovery was made and secondly the view that science education was superior to technical education.
Although the first assertion is valid in most cases it is not universally true. The application of existing technology can itself bring about the need for further and new scientific research and discovery. As existing technologies and machines are operated in different working situations the demands and limitations of the machinery and the underlying technologies often precipitate the need for more original scientific research.
Therefore the belief that science is always ahead of technology and therefore is superior is a false one as it is clearly a two way iterative process i. A classic example of how technology precedes and interacts with science can be seen in the development of the steam engine. As the use of the engine was diversified and applied in different situations fundamental design and operating limitations were identified that required further basic scientific research and this in turn challenged and questioned the existing scientific theories and hypothesises.
In this case of the steam engine the discipline of thermodynamics was greatly enhanced and refined. A good example at present is the use of bio-fuels in cars that traditionally use petrol or diesel as the array of O rings and gaskets cannot operate in the new operating environment created by the bio-fuels.
Therefore a whole new area of material science has had to be established in order to deal with the challenges of the existing technology. Other examples show that science and technology possess a synergistic relationship to one another and clearly feed off each other and that no one discipline is superior to the other. However it was the aspect of this false belief that has been so damaging to the development of technical and applied education namely that scientific education should take precedence over technical education.
This assertion most certainly had a negative and retarding impact on the image and development of technical education during the 19th century — one can also see these elements in play even today as the history will show later. The acceptance of this belief by politicians and decision makers meant that education policy at the time required the instruction of science to take precedence over the instruction of technical, applied and practical subjects.
This highly questionable belief and attitude was even held and articulated by some of the greatest advocates of technical education including Lyon Playfair and Thomas Huxley 4 who both voiced similar views as Williamson. The debate continues even today as evidenced in early when an enlightened government minister stressed the need to commit a greater proportion of the research funding for science to enhance the economic and technological base of the country.
The vast majority of the scientific community, mostly university based, expressed their total disagreement with this suggestion arguing it subverted academic freedom and independence. This was the period of the first Industrial Revolution driven by steam. The second Indutrial Revolution from the midth century was driven by the chemical, communications and electrical technologies which Britain did not fully capitalise on — Germany and America did! The development of technical education during most of the 19th century had to overcome many prejudices and problems in order for it to gain recognition and credibility.
Scientific Revolution - Wikipedia
Reading the literature shows conclusively that those resisting forces and movements came from all levels of society, the State and individuals. This resistance manifested itself as shown in this and the previous chapter through a whole host of factors and these were coupled with:. The next chapter will consider the importance of the Craft Guilds-Livery Companies, the Gilds and the apprenticeship schemes before the first industrial revolution and their gradual decline as the first industrial revolution evolved. These transitions inevitably identified and highlighted the growing need to establish different educational structures to satisfy the demands of the emerging industries.