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Kosugi K. Makishima T. Murakami T. Sakao T. Dotani M. Inda K. Kai S. Masuda H.

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Solar A (Yohkoh)

Frieden B. Gull S. ADS Google Scholar. Kosugi T. Makishima, K. Tanaka et al. Hinotori Symp. Google Scholar. Makishima K. Vaiana eds. Ogawara Y. Prince T. Tsuneta S.

Hinode (Solar-B) - Annular Solar Eclipse, January 4, 2011

First, it converts pulse-height analog signals into digital signals, then it counts the incident photon number after discriminating the photon energy into four energy bands. The signals from the individual subcollimators are being processed separately and simultaneously.

Finally, the HXT-E sends the photon count data to the data processor of the spacecraft. HXT forms images in four energy bands , , , and keV with a time resolution as fine as 0. The HXT instrument responds both to bremsstrahlung from non-thermal electrons and to thermal radiation from "super-hot" sources formed during flares.

This means that HXT can detect hard X-rays of flares regardless of their position on the sun without re-pointing the spacecraft.


Yohkoh was also the first satellite in Japan to incorporate true computer telescope control. HXT was the first telescope anywhere to adopt the Fourier synthesis principle in its observation strategy. HXT collected many examples of hard X-ray flares and helped to answer a number of questions of solar flare characteristics. SXT uses a 23 cm diameter Wolter-Nariai optics of cm focal length; it covers the energy range from 0. Imaging is provided by a x pixel CCD behind two six-position filter wheels.

SXT forms images at 0. SXT has a FOV that covers the whole sun, but on internal command it can obtain a series of small-scale, high-resolution images of flares. Instrument mass of 27 kg. SXT has for the first time provided images of coronal mass ejections - eruptions through the lower corona of the sun of enormous bubbles of superheated plasma. The plasma - estimated to be the equivalent of 17, Earths in volume - spews charged particles out into space at velocities of over one million miles an hour.

Solar scientists discovered the elusive voids left behind by these colossal events in SXT images, providing another piece in the puzzle of understanding the corona and how the sun throws off wind and transports energy.

The Sungazers: Asian solar missions

BCS is being used for high-resolution soft X-ray emission-line spectroscopy. The main objective is the precise observation of the high-temperature plasma that is generated in solar flares. Solar flares create plasma temperatures of x K; special emphasis is the heating and dynamics of the plasma during the impulsive phase. The line ratios give flare temperatures, and Doppler-shifted components give plasma flow velocities.

Instrument mass of 13 kg. It uses two large plane crystals, lithium hydride and graphite, in a Bragg spectrometer with a honeycomb collimator. WBS instrument mass of 16 kg. The first three of the spectrometers aim at solar flare observations while the RBM serves to sound the alarm for radiation belt passage. Measurement ranges: The WBS output is a set of simultaneous time-resolved spectra. Igarashi, M.

Deriving solar X ray irradiance from Yohkoh observations

Homma, E. Hayashi, Y. Takizawa, Y. Nozaki, Y. Tanaka, Y.

Ogawara, T. Takano, H. Inoue, M. A, pp. Harra, J.

Solar Telescopes

Kosugi, K. Makishima, T. Murakami, T. Sakao, T.